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Contents

Preface

### Chapter 1: Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics

1.2 Physical Quantities and Units1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures

### Chapter 2: Kinematics

2.1 Displacement2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed

2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension

2.7 Falling Objects

2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

### Chapter 3: Two-Dimensional Kinematics

3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods

3.4 Projectile Motion

3.5 Addition of Velocities

### Chapter 4: Dynamics: Force and Newton’s Laws of Motion

4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies

4.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion

### Chapter 5: Further Application of Newton’s Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity

5.1 Friction5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain

### Chapter 6: Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation

6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity6.2 Centripetal Acceleration

6.3 Centripetal Force

6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation

6.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

### Chapter 7: Work, Energy, and Energy Resources

7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem

7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy

7.7 Power

7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans

### Chapter 8: Linear Momentum and Collisions

8.1 Linear Momentum and Force8.2 Impulse

8.3 Conservation of Momentum

8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension

8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions

8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion

### Chapter 9: Statics and Torque

9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium9.3 Stability

9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints

### Chapter 10: Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum

10.1 Angular Acceleration10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia

10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited

10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation

10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions

### Chapter 11: Fluid Statics

11.2 Density11.3 Pressure

11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid

11.5 Pascal’s Principle

11.7 Archimedes’ Principle

11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action

11.9 Pressures in the Body

### Chapter 12: Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications

12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation

12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law

12.5 The Onset of Turbulence

12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

### Chapter 13: Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws

13.1 Temperature13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

13.3 The Ideal Gas Law

13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

### Chapter 14: Heat and Heat Transfer Methods

14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat

14.5 Conduction

14.6 Convection

14.7 Radiation

### Chapter 15: Thermodynamics

15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes

15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency

15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators

15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy

15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

### Chapter 16: Oscillatory Motion and Waves

16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations

16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion

16.4 The Simple Pendulum

16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion

16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance

16.9 Waves

16.10 Superposition and Interference

16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity

### Chapter 17: Physics of Hearing

17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level

17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms

17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns

17.6 Hearing

17.7 Ultrasound

### Chapter 18: Electric Charge and Electric Field

18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge18.2 Conductors and Insulators

18.3 Coulomb’s Law

18.4 Electric Field: COncept of a Field Revisited

18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges

18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium

18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

### Chapter 19: Electric Potential and Electric Field

19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field

19.3 Electric Potential Due to a Point Charge

19.4 Equipotential Lines

19.5 Capacitors and Dieletrics

19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel

19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors

### Chapter 20: Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm’s Law

20.1 Current20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits

20.3 Resistance and Resistivity

20.4 Electric Power and Energy

20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current

20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body

### Chapter 21: Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments

21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage

21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules

21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

21.5 Null Measurements

21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors

### Chapter 22: Magnetism

22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications

22.6 The Hall Effect

22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters

22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors

22.11 More Applications of Magnetism

### Chapter 23: Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies

23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law

23.3 Motional Emf

23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping

23.5 Electric Generators

23.6 Back Emf

23.7 Transformers

23.9 Inductance

23.10 RL Circuits

23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive

23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

### Chapter 24: Electromagnetic Waves

24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

### Chapter 25: Geometric Optics

25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light25.3 The Law of Refraction

25.4 Total Internal Reflection

25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms

25.6 Image Formation by Lenses

25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors

### Chapter 26: Vision and Optical Instruments

26.1 Physics of the Eye26.2 Vision Correction

26.5 Telescopes

26.6 Aberrations

### Chapter 27: Wave Optics

27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment

27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction

27.5 Single Slit Diffraction

27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion

27.7 Thin Film Interference

27.8 Polarization

### Chapter 28: Special Relativity

28.2 Simultaneity and Time Dilation28.3 Length Contraction

28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities

28.5 Relativistic Momentum

28.6 Relativistic Energy

### Chapter 29: Introduction to Quantum Physics

29.1 Quantization of Energy29.2 The Photoelectric Effect

29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

29.4 Photon Momentum

29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter

29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed

### Chapter 30: Atomic Physics

30.1 Discovery of the Atom30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications

30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations

30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules

30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle

### Chapter 31: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus

31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

31.5 Half-Life and Activity

31.6 Binding Energy

31.7 Tunneling

### Chapter 32: Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics

32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation

32.5 Fusion

32.6 Fission

32.7 Nuclear Weapons

### Chapter 33: Particle Physics

33.2 The Four Basic Forces33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy

33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?

33.6 GUTS: The Unification of Forces